Figure 1. Sketch of the direct writing of conductive channels in the insulating sheet of fluorographene, see F. Withers et al., Nano Letters 11, 3912 (2011).

Figure 2. False colour scanning microscope micrographs of suspended graphene (purple) with an air bridge gate electrode (yellow), see T. Khodkov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013114 (2012)

Russo lab

Leader: Professor Saverio Russo

Research Fellows: Li Ping Lu, Laureline Mahe, Iddo Amit

PhD Students: Gareth Jones, Selim Unal, Nicola Townsend, Adolfo De Sanctis, Jake Mhewe, Saad Rhamadan


The physics of future electronics is largely driven by the needs for reducing the size, enhancing the performances and combining novel functionalities in a single electrical device. The science of systems which are just one or few hundreds of atoms –i.e. nanoscale systems- differs significantly from that of macroscopic devices as it thrives primarily on the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics. This is leading to the discovery of a new realm of physical properties.

Our research group is pioneering the novel science found in nano-systems. In particular, we are currently studying the electrical properties of graphene materials, which are just one or few carbon atom thick with honeycomb structure. In these materials charge carriers have a record high mobility at room temperature and behave as massless Dirac fermions. Here are our main research directions.

Whole graphene electronics

We are developing graphene-based flexible and transparent electronic devices. This is done by direct writing circuits in an insulating sheet of chemically functionalized graphene with fluorine adatoms with an electron beam (see Figure 1).

Graphene nano-devices

We are exploring novel technologies for fabricating suspended and double gated graphene transistors (see Figure 2) to access the electric field tuneable low-energy band structure in few-layer graphene and the electro-mechanical properties.

Search for highly conductive and transparent materials

We have developed the GraphExeter (see Figure 3), which is the best known transparent material able to conduct electricity and it is a suitable replacement for Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) commonly used by display industries. This material is obtained by introducing molecules which act as dopants between the planes of few-layer graphene.

Superconducting-graphene hybrid structures.

We are exploring the feasibility of solid state entangler devices based on hybrid structures of graphene and superconducting materials.

We are looking for enthusiastic PhD students to join our group, please contact Prof. S. Russo ( to know more.

Figure 3. Performance chart of the best known transparent electrical conductors against the GraphExeter (sketch of the material structure to the right), see I. Khrapach et al., Advanced Mater. 24, 2844 (2012).

Selected Publications

I Khrapach, F. Withers, T.H. Bointon, D.K. Polyushkin, W.L. Barnes, S. Russo, and M.F. Craciun, Advanced Materials 24, 2844 (2012).

H. Shioya, M. Yamamoto, S. Russo, M. F. Craciun, and S. Tarucha, Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 033113 (2012).

T. Khodkov, F. Withers, D.C. Hudson, M.F. Craciun, and S. Russo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013114 (2012).

S.H. Jhang, M.F. Craciun, S. Schmidmeier, S. Tokumitsu, S. Russo, M. Yamamoto, Y. Skourski, J. Wosnitza, S. Tarucha, J. Eroms, and C. Strunk, Phys. Rev. B (R) 84, 161408 (2011).

S. Russo, M.F. Craciun, T. Khodkov, M. Koshino, M. Yamamoto, and S. Tarucha, Graphene - Synthesis, Characterization, Properties and Applications, Jian Ru Gong (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-292-0 (2011).

F. Withers, T.H. Bointon, M. Dubois, S. Russo, M.F. Craciun, Nano Lett. 11, 3912 (2011).

F. Withers, S. Russo, M. Dubois, and M.F. Craciun, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 526 (2011).

M.F. Craciun, S. Russo, M. Yamamoto, S. Tarucha, Nanotoday 6, 42 (2011).

J. T. Ye, M. F. Craciun, M. Koshino, S. Russo, S. Inoue, H. T. Yuan, H. Shimotani, A. F. Morpurgo, Y. Iwasa, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 108, 13002 (2011).

S.Russo, M.F. Craciun, M. Yamamoto, A.F. Morpurgo and S. Tarucha, Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures 42 (4), 677 (2010).

M.F. Craciun, S. Russo, M. Yamamoto, J.B. Oostinga, A.F. Morpurgo and S. Tarucha, Nature Nanotechnology 4(6), 383-388 (2009).

R. Danneau, F. Wu, M.F. Craciun, S. Russo, M.Y. Tomi, J. Salmilehto, A.F. Morpurgo and P.J. Hakonen, Physical Review Letters, 100, 196802 (2008).

S. Russo, J.B. Oostinga, D. Wehenkel, H.B. Heersche, S. Shams Sobhani, L.M.K. Vandersypen and A.F. Mopurgo, Physical Review B 77, 085413 (2008).

S. Russo, J. Tobiska, T. M. Klapwijk and A. F. Morpurgo, Physical Review Letters 99, 086601 (2007).

S. Russo, M. Kroug, T. M. Klapwijk and A. F. Morpurgo, Physical Review Letters 95, 027002 (2005).



Dr M.F. Craciun, College of Engineering, Mathermatics and Physical Science, University of Exeter, Exeter (UK)

Prof. P. Hakonen, School of Science, Aalto University, Aalto (FI)

Prof. S. Tarucha, Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

Prof. M. Dubois, Clermont Université, UBP, Laboratoire des Matériaux Inorganiques, Aubière (France)

Prof. C. Strunk, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany

Prof. Y. Iwasa, Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)