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Mr Callum Scott



Thesis: Development of exploration tools for porphyry-breccia-hosted mineral deposits.


It is now generally recognised, through extensive global surface mapping, that the majority of exposed surface mineral deposits have already been found.  This is prompting research into new methods of discovering surface signals for deposits which may be too deep to be identified using remote sensing techniques, covered in barren or weakly altered rocks, or may require expensive geophysical and drilling methods.

Tourmaline breccias are a major host of Cu mineralisation in porphyry-type deposits including El Teniente, the World’s largest single Cu deposit, and the Río Blanco-Los Bronces district in Chile, the most highly endowed porphyry Cu cluster in the world. However, many aspects of the link between tourmaline breccias, their parent magmas and related mineralisation are poorly understood. Assessing which breccias are significantly endowed, and at what depth, is problematic as there are relatively few models and exploration tools available for these often partly exposed or blind and complex, often vertically and horizontally zoned, systems.  Of most interest to minerals exploration companies are: a) why some breccias are heavily mineralised whilst others are ‘barren’; and b) whether any aspects (chemical or textural) of outcropping porphyry rocks can be used to predict the presence of a nearby breccia-type mineralisation.  

What is needed are new architectural-exploration models to determine the position within a system of the current level of exposure, and therefore whether mineralisation may be present at depth or has been eroded off, and exploration indicators for strongly mineralised systems.  To address this, detailed mapping and sampling of ‘barren’ and mineralised breccias was undertaken at El Teniente. 

The objectives of the study were to carryout detailed petrological studies (optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence and SEM) on core from El Teniente, and quantitative tourmaline, quartz and whole-rock geochemical analyses (EPMA, ICP-OES, ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS), to determine the 3D architecture of the breccia bodies, provide insights into their genesis, and to evaluate tourmaline composition as an exploration tool for magmatic-hydrothermal breccia-hosted Cu-Mo mineralisation.

This research is being funded through the NERC GW4+ initiative, supervised by Prof. Ben Williamson (CSM), Prof. Jens Andersen (CSM)  and co-supervised by Prof. Tom Blenkinsop, (University of Cardiff).  Additional supervisors include Dr José Piquer (Universidad Austral de Chile, Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra) and Prof. Axel Müller (Natural History Museum, Oslo, Norway). I am part of the Ore Deposits and Critical Metals Research Group at CSM.

Academic qualifications:

· 2019-present: Diploma in Accounting and Business

· 2016: MSc Mining Geology (Distinction) - Camborne School of Mines.

· 2015: BSc (Hons) Applied Geology (1st)- Camborne School of Mines.

Honours and Awards:

· Society of Economic Geologists Graduate Student Fellowship: Anglo American Scholar 2016/17

· Master of the Camborne School of Mines – MCSM.

· Dean’s Commendation 2015/16 – Awarded for outstanding academic performance (MSc).

· Associate of the Camborne School of Mines – ACSM.

· Dean’s Commendation 2014/15 – Awarded for outstanding academic performance (BSc).

· Richard Pearce Gold Medal.  Awarded to the best final-year student, primarily based on degree classification, taking an undergraduate course in Geology at the Camborne School of Mines.

· JC Davey Industrial Geology Prize.  Awarded for the best summer vacation report by a final-year student taking an undergraduate course in Geology at the Camborne School of Mines.

· Mineralogical Society Student Award for the Best Aggregate Mark in Specified Modules in Mineralogical Subjects (2nd Year Applied Geology).

· Martyn Nicholas Costello Memorial Prize for the Best Overall Academic Result (Second Year Applied Geology).

· Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) Bursary 2014.

Courses and training:

NERC/BGS Multidisciplinary fieldwork and modeling skills for the mining industry: This course focused on developing field observation skills relevant to the mineral exploration industry. It included field deployment of several instrument technologies including spectroscopy, portable XRF, portable XRD and ground LiDAR. It also utilised statistically-based prospectivity analysis to define mineral deposit targets, enabling an understanding of the key requirements for industry investment in mineral exploration projects.  In addition to improving technical expertise, the course highlighted the importance of the social, community and environmental issues associated with mineral exploration and extraction.

Overview of Geochemical Exploration Short Course: Denis Schlatter and CSMSEG .  A short course designed to provide an introduction to the theories and principles of geochemical exploration methods within an integrated exploration program. It focussed on the following aspects: i) The role of geochemistry in exploration for ore deposits and in research; ii) Metal markets and commodities, iii) Choice of appropriate geochemical surveys for each stage of the exploration program: regional scale, prospect scale, ore deposit scale. iv) The use of analytical techniques appropriate for each sampling method and the goal. 
v) Appropriate level of interpretation to reach goal required, and vi) Pitfalls of Geochemical Exploration. 

The Lowell Program in Economic Geology: Short Course on Ore Deposits Mapping: Yerington porphyry and skarn mapping exercises, and field trip of ore-forming systems in the Great Basin. The trip included a multi-day introduction to the “Anaconda-style” of detailed mapping.  This was applied throughout the Yerington district, Nevada, containing porphyry copper and skarn mineralisation. Part of the course focussed on how mapping can be used to understand zoning, the time-space evolution of mineralising systems, and the relationships to the fundamental phase equilibria of hydrothermal alteration. The trip included overviews and/or tours of the following districts and deposits:

· Goldfield high-sulfidation epithermal Au fieldtrip and Tonopah, Nevada low-sulfidation epithermal Ag-Au overview 

· Birch Creek pluton & aureole field trip: Granite-related F-Be- W(-Zn) greisen/skarn 

· Yerington District field trip; Ankles to scalp view of magmatic-hydrothermal system(s)

· Albite Hills Na(Ca) alteration field trip; and MacArthur Cu porphyry bench mapping 

· Pumpkin Hollow IOCG Project overview and core shed tour

· Ludwig skarn complex aureole (hornfels/marble, endoskarn, skarn, lode) field trip

· Casting Copper skarn mapping

· Buena Vista Hills and Buena Vista mine area field trip; IOCG bottom to middle part of system

· Carlin Au, porphyry Mo-Cu to replacement Zn-Pb-Ag, and top of F-W-Zn-Be(-Mo-Sn) superimposed systems

· Robinson porphyry Cu(-Mo- Au) and replacement systems field trip 


· Camborne School of Mines Association.

· Member of the Society of Economic Geologists.

Research interests:

· Magmatic and hydrothermal systems.

· Brecciation processes.

· Exploration geochemistry.

· Remote sensing and GIS applications within the mining industry.