Use of national and international facilities

Time resolved X-ray Ferromagnetic Resonance

Synchrotron radiation sources are inherently pulsed and can be used to perform time resolved measurements. We have developed a phase resolved x-ray Ferromagnetic Resonance (XFMR) measurement technique at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) near Oxford and at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, California. XFMR is an element specific probe that can identify the contribution of different components of a material or structure to the FMR response.

Small- Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) and Polarised Neutron Reflectivity (PNR)

We use neutron scattering techniques to probe the magnetic structure of magnetic thin films and superconductors. The experiments are performed at neutron radiation sources such as ISIS (beamline ‘CRISP’, Rutherford Laboratory, UK), ILL (beamlines D17, D11 and D22, Grenoble, France). The measurements can be performed with variable temperatures and magnetic field.

Soft X-ray Magnetic Resonance Scattering (SXRMS)

We are regular users of synchrotron radiation facilities. X-ray spectroscopy and scattering techniques are used to investigate magnetic correlations in thin films and interfaces. The techniques are based on the effect of x-ray circular magnetic dichroism (XMCD) probing the magnitude and the orientation of the local magnetic moment. An element specific analysis is possible by tuning to the corresponding absorption edge of the material. Experiments are carried out at beam-lines I10 (Diamond Light Source, UK), Sextants (SOLEIL, France) and ID32 (ESRF, Grenoble, France). Measurements can be performed in reflective geometry with either a point detector (‘theta-two theta’ dependence) or a CCD (off-specular, 2D scattering). Variable temperature and field environments are available to suit specific magnetic configurations.

Time-Resolved X-ray Magnetic Holography

Soft X-ray highly coherent light at the 3rd generation synchrotron sources is used to perform time-resolved holographic imaging of magnetisation dynamics in magnetic thin films and multilayers. In collaboration with magnetic spectroscopy group (Diamond Light Source) and beamlines Sextants (SOLEIL) and ID32 (ESRF) we have developed a technique (HERALDO) for holographic imaging in transmission and grazing incidence geometry. Element specific measurements can be performed as function of magnetic field (currently up to 0.5T) imaging the perpendicular (to the surface) component of magnetisation within 5 micron field of view with the resolution of 20nm.