The file Richmond_standard  is an input file for the Epanet hydraulic network analysis software (1). It contains a general, though not updated, description of the Richmond water distribution system, owned by Yorkshire Water in the UK. It was used in a PhD research project on operational optimization of water distribution systems by Kobus van Zyl (2,3) at the University of Exeter in 2001.

The file Richmond_skeleton . is an input file for the Epanet hydraulic network analysis software (1). It contains a schematic representation of the Richmond water distribution system, but is NOT an equivalent hydraulic model. It can be used to test a procedure (e.g. optimization) before moving on to the full Richmond system.

Yorkshire Water gave permission for the Richmond model to be used in academic studies, but in return would like to be kept informed about how it's being used and to see any outputs/papers. Researchers may contact Yorkshire Water through Mark Randall-Smith ( Kobus van Zyl can be contacted at (

System Description

Notes on previous operational optimisation study on richmond system

  • The primary objective of the optimization was to determine the optimum trigger levels that would minimize the annual pumping costs over the whole system. Two pairs of trigger-on and trigger-off levels were used for each level control pump, one for off-peak, and the other for peak electricity tariff periods.
  • The operational costs listed in (2) and (3) include energy and pump switch penalty costs. The best operational cost found (run 4 excluding penalty costs) was £33 982.
  • A pump switch penalty cost of £0.15 per switch (on or off) was used.
  • Only solutions where the levels in all service reservoirs at the end of the simulation run equals or exceed the levels at the start of the run were allowed.
  • Minimum tank water levels were fixed at the following:
TankMin Cntrl Level (m)
A 1.02
B 2.03
C 0.50
D 1.10
E 0.20
F 0.19
  • For easy reference, tanks were named using letters of the alphabet. Pumps were named by a number and the tank that controls their operation. For example, tank 3A is controlled by the level in tank A.
  • The following tariffs were used for the pumps in the system:
PumpOff Peak (£/kWh)Peak (£/kWh)
1A 0.02410 0.0679
2A 0.02410 0.0679
3A 0.02410 0.0754
4B 0.02460 0.1234
5C 0.02460 0.0987
6D 0.02460 0.1120
7F 0.02440 0.1194
  • Peak period was from 7:00 to 24:00.

  • Epanet uses slightly different procedures to determine intermediate time steps in the Epanet Programmers Toolkit and the stand-alone Epanet program. A network simulated on these two programmes will thus not necessarily produce identical results.


Richmond Standard
Richmond Standard

Richmond Skeletonised
Richmond Skeletonised



  1. Rossman, L. (1993). EPANET users manual.EPA-600/R-94/057, Environmental Protection Agency, Risk Recuction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati.
  2. Van Zyl, J.E. (2001). A methodology for improved operational optimization of water distribution systems, Ph.D. thesis, University of Exeter, UK.
  3. Van Zyl, J.E., Savic, D.A., Walters, G.A. (2004). Operational Optimization of Water Distribution Systems Using a Hybrid Genetic Algorithm, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 130 (3), 160-170.

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